Following the Turko-Persian Ghaznavid conquest of South Asia, the speech based in Khariboli and other dialects of the South Asia received a massive influx of Persian, Turkish and Arabic vocabulary, as well as a limited number of grammatical patterns from these languages. This lexically hybrid language was called Zaban-e-Urdu-e-Mualla ('language of the exalted (army) camp') to distinguish it from Farsi, the court language, and was later shortened to just Urdu. It grew from the interaction of Persian and Turkic speaking Muslim soldiers and the native peoples. Under Persian influence from the state, the Persian script and Nasta'liq form of cursive writing was adopted, with additional figures added to accommodate the Indo-Aryan phonetic system.
Urdu is grammatically an Indo-Aryan language, written in the Perso-Arabic script, and contains literary conventions and specialized vocabulary largely from Persian. Some grammatical elements peculiar to Persian, such as the enclitic ezāfe, and the use of the takhallus, were readily absorbed into Urdu literature both religious and secular.
Despite the heavy influence of Persian on Urdu, linguistically, Urdu is not an Iranian language (as is Persian) but rather an Indo-Aryan language like Punjabi or Sindhi; all of these are Indo-Iranian languages. Urdu soon gained distinction in literary and cultural spheres because of the hybrid nature of the language. Many distinctly Persian forms of literature, such as Ghazal, Qasida, Marsia and Nazms, carried over into Urdu literature, producing a distinct melding of Iranian and South Asian heritages. A famous cross-over writer was Amir Khusro, whose Persian and Urdu couplets are to this day read in South Asia. Allama Iqbal was also a prominent Perso-Urdu poet.
Urdu Scholars in Persian Literature
There have been prominent and eminent Urdu Persian Scholars
- Amir Khusro
- Allama Iqbal
- Mirza Ghalib
- Dr. Rais Numani
- Allama Jamil mazhari
- Dr. Shamim Hashimi
- Ataur Rahman Ata Kakwi