Death Date:[edit | edit source]
March 9 or 30, 670 CE (Safar 7th or 28th, 50 AH) aged 47
Imam Hasan(as) is a member of the Ahl al-Bayt. Hasan ibn Ali(as) is 2nd Imam. Hasan is also highly respected as the grandson of Muhammad.
Birth And Family Life:[edit | edit source]
Hazrat Mohammad(SAWW) upon the birth of Imam Hassan(as) was ordered by Hazrat Jibrail(as) to name his grandson Hasan. Hazrat Mohammad(SAWW) also honoured his grandson by reciting the Azan in his right ear, the Qalma in his left ear, shaving his head, and sacrificing a ram for the sake of his birth.
He married nine women:
- Um Kulthum bint Alfadhl bin Al-Abbas bin Abdulmuttalib bin Hashim
- Khawla bint Mandhoor bin Zaban bin Syar bin Amro
- Um Basheer bint Abi Mas'ud
- Ju'da bint Al-Ash'ath bin Qays Ma'di Karb Alkindi
- Um Ishaq bint Talha bin Ubaydillah bin Uthman Al-Taymi
- Zainab bint Sabee' bin Abdullah
Early Life:[edit | edit source]
Hasan and his younger brother, Hussayn Ibn Ali(as), are believed to have been greatly beloved by their grandfather Hazrat Mohammad(SAWW) as numerous hadiths affirm . There are also hadiths that state that Hasan(as) and Husayn(as) are the Masters of the youth in paradise and that Hasan and his brother Hussein are imams "whether they sit or stand". Hasan is one of five persons included in the Hadith of the Cloak. He is said to have been the first of the Prophet's family to enter Yemenei Kisa after Muhammad and to have walked hand in hand with Muhammad as a child to testify to the truth of Islam at Mubahila.
In Medina when Hazrat Mohammad(SAWW) was sitting with his companions and Hasan(SAWW), who was still a child, was playing between his hands, Muhammad is said to have gazed at Hasan and said to his companions "This (grand)son of mine is a delight, and may God place in his hands the reconciliation of two great groups of believers."
When the third caliph was murdered by demonstrators in his palace in Mad'mah Ali was elected to lead the Muslims. Hasan assisted his father: he went to Kufa and raised an army against the dissenting Muslims, then participated actively in the battles of Basra, Siffin and Nahrawan alongside his father, demonstrating skill both as a soldier and a leader.
Caliphate:[edit | edit source]
Upon the death of Imam Ali(as) in Kufa a new caliph had to be elected. According to Imam Ali's(as) appointment before his death the choice was restricted to Imam Hasan(as) and his younger brother Imam Husayn(as). Kufi Muslims gave their allegiance(bayt) to Imam Hasan(as) without dispute.
Muawiya Ibn Abi Sufian(Lanat Ullah) , who had a long-running dispute with Imam Ali(as), summoned the commanders of his forces in Syria, Palestine, and Transjordan to join him in preparation for battle. He first attempted to negotiate with Hasan, sending him letters asking him to give up his caliphate.Negotiations failed and Muawiyah(lanat ullah) decided to march against Hasan's army of forty thousand with his own army, claimed to have numbered sixty thousand fighters.The two armies faced each other near Sabat.
Imam Hassan's(as) soldiers rebelled, attacked him, and joind muawiya's army. Imam Hasan(as) was wounded but loyal soldiers surrounded him and managed to kill the mutineers. One commander, Ubayd-Allah ibn Abbas, deserted him and joined Muawiyah’s forces.The two armies fought a few inconclusive skirmishes. Hasan was distressed, understanding that the engagement of Muslims in a battle against each other would mean a loss of many: Muawiyah also had his concerns about being forced into a battle and sent two men from the Quraish tribe to negotiate a settlement. Imam Hassan(as) presented a treaty:
- The enforced public cursing of Ali, e.g. during prayers, should be abandoned.
- Muawiyah should not use tax money for his own private needs.
- There should be peace: followers of Hasan should be given security and their rights.
(Sahih Al Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 49 (Peacemaking), Number 867 : Narrated by Al-Hasan Al-Basri)
Al-Hasan (Al-Basri) said: I heard Abu Bakr saying, "I saw Allah's Apostle on the pulpit and Al-Hasan bin 'Ali was by his side."
Hassan wanted peace. He was one of the guards defending Hazrat Usman when the attacker climbed a wall and went around him and killed Hazrat Usman. Those events had led to much bloodshed. Many of Hassan's closest friends had been killed in those futile wars, including Mohammad bin Abu Bakr who he was raised with. Many of the people around him also wanted peace. There was also a Kharijities rebellion on going and these people viewed everyone as an enermy. Hassan viewed Muawiyah as a Muslim, who could deal with the Kharijities. Hassan therefore made the treaty with Muawiyah.
Muawiyah proceeded to Kufa and demanded that the Muslims there pledge allegiance to him as caliph. He also asked Hasan to join him and support him in the fight against the rebellious Kharijities. Hasan is claimed to have written to him in response: "I have abandoned the fight against you, even though it was my legal right, for the sake of peace and reconciliation of the Muslim congregation . Do you think that I shall then fight together with you?"
Muawiyah did not comply with the terms of the treaty, saying to the people of Kufa, “do you think I have taken power to teach you? No, I have taken power and if any one of you tries to disagree with me he shall pay the costly price of the loss of his head. He carried out his ambition of keeping the power in his family by nominating his son Yazid as caliph after him.
Death:[edit | edit source]
Hasan ibn Ali(as) died in Medina on Safar 28th, 50 AH. He(as) is buried at the famous Jannat ulBaqee cemetery across from the Masjid al-nabwi (Mosque of the Prophet(SAWW)). According to historians, Muawiyah(lanatullah) wished to pass the caliphate to his own son Yazid(lanat ullah), and saw Imam
Hasan(as) as an obstacle. So, he secretly contacted one of Imam Hasan's(as) wives, Ja'da bint al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, and incited her to poison her husband. Ja'da did as Muawiyah(lanatullah) suggested, giving her husband poison mixed with honey. Ja'da was promised gold and marriage to Yazid(lanatullah). Seduced by the promise of wealth and power, she poisoned her husband, and then hastened to the court of Muawiyah(lanatullah) in Damascus to receive her reward. Muawiyah(lanatullah), yazid(lanatullah) did not marry Ja'da and said, How can I expect loyality from such a woman who wasn't even loyal to
the prphet's(SAWW) grandson?
Imam Hasan(as) had asked for his body to be taken to the prophet's(SAWW) grave, so that he could pay his last respect, and then to be buried near his mother Fatima bint Muhammad(as). This caused armed opposition. As the funeral proceeded towards the grave of Hazrat Mohammad(SAWW), some Umayyads mounted on horses obstructed it. Some more recent Shia sources suggest that Hazrat Ayesha(ra) appeared, riding a mule and shouting that the grave of Hazrat Mohammad(SAWW) was in her house and she would not allow the grandson of Bibi Khadija(as) to be buried beside Hazrat Mohammad(SAWW). A shower of arrows fell on the coffin.(Sunnis disagree to this)
According to Encyclopedia Iranica, "Marwān b. al-Ḥakam, who had been deposed the year before, swore that he would not allow Ḥa-san to be buried next to Moḥammad with Abu Bakr and ʿOmar as long as ʿOṯmān was buried in al-Baqiʿ...Moʿāwiya eventually rewarded Marwān for his stand by reappointing him governor of Medina "